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Revision as of 17:23, 14 April 2007 by Probono (talk | contribs) (About Darwin)
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This page is about "Darwinx86" in general. Nothing specific to Apple TV. Everything 100% APSL compliant.

About Darwin

As Apple advertises, Mac OS X is built on a "secure, reliable, Open Source foundation", namely Darwin. See http://www.apple.com/opensource/ for more information.

We want to use this system. There are a couple of reasons why Darwin is great:

  • It can read and write HFS+ Journaled natively
  • Mac and Apple TV users are familiar with the workings of the system
  • There is lots of Open Source applications available, including a graphical X desktop
  • Can be used e.g., for embedded applications
  • Can be legally changed and re-distributed in accordance with APSL

Darwin-related community projects

Initially, there was large interest in Darwin, but as time progressed, the community lost interest (due to reasons that shall not be evaluated here). However, with the switch of Mac OS to Intel, there seems to be a lot of interest of the community again, but mainly focused on Mac OS X rather than Darwin itself.

Mac OS Forge

Mac OS Forge, hosted by Apple, is where Kernel (xnu), Launchd, and other parts of Darwin live.


Unfortunately, this project closed due to the "lack of interest" just when it became "interesting" due to the move to Intel.

As there is little information left since the OpenDarwin project (which is NOT to be confused with the Darwin project itself) closed, this page is here in order to collect information on how to practically use Darwin.




This page

The first goal will be to install Darwin on a USB drive and boot a generic PC from there. This serves as a starting point for further projects based on Darwin.

Please note that this page is about 100% legitimate uses of the Darwin Open Source system only.

Booting darwinx86-801.iso on a PC

Booting Darwin CD from IDE (works)

This is on a i915 chipset, DVD drive attached to IDE:

IOATAController device blocking bus
AppleIntelPIIXPATA: ICH6 ATA/100 (CMD 0x1f0, CTR 0x3f4, IRQ 14 BM 0xffa0) 
Still waiting for root device
Still waiting for root device
Still waiting for root device

Changing the DVD drive jumper from cable select to Master solved this issue.

It boots up and asks where to install Darwin.

So in principle, darwinx86-801.iso contains a system that is capable of running on a generic PC.

Booting Darwin CD from USB (works)

The same darwinx86-801.iso also boots fine when the DVD drive is connected to the USB bus using a IDE2USB adapter.

So in fact darwinx86-801.iso contains a system that is capable of running on a generic PC from USB.

Can we turn this into a USB "bootstick"?

Booting Darwin CD into single user mode

By default, the Darwin CD boots into a installer. However by using "-s" at the boot prompt, we can boot into "single user mode", which allows us to issue commands on the command line.

Installing Darwin on USB drive and boot generic PC from there

This is not working yet. Any help is greatly appreciated.

# Get Darwin 8.0.1 ISO for i386 from Apple
# Mount ISO
# Prepare USB drive by formatting it as HFS+ (Journaled) and enabling permissions
# Copy /usr /bin /sbin /System /Library /private /cores /mach_kernel from ISO to USB drive
# Bless USB drive and set partition active
# Change Boot.plist 
# Boot

This easily fits on a 512 MB USB stick, and probably can be slimmed down further (e.g. for embedded applications).

This does boot, but as soon as the kernel is supposed to appear, it reboots the PC (even before printing a kernel panic).

Minimal number of files to boot the Darwin kernel

What are the minimum required files to boot the Darwin kernel and to bring up a minimal shell?